“In the annals of human history the growth of nations, the rise and fall of empires, appear as dependent upon the will and prowess of man. The shaping of events seems, to a great degree, to be determined by his power, ambition, or caprice. But in the word of God the curtain is drawn aside, and we behold, behind, above, and through all the play and counter-play of human interests and power and passions, the agencies of the all-merciful One, silently, patiently working out the counsels of His own will. The Bible reveals the true philosophy of history.” E. 173  

The Origin and Purpose of Nations

·             Gen. 11:1. Whole earth one language.  

·             Gen. 11:1-9. God the author of languages and nations. P.P. 120.  

·             Acts 17:26. All nations of one blood. P.K. 500.  

·             Deut. 32:8. God establishes the boundaries of nations. Hab. 1:5-11; P.K. 499, 500.  

·             Job 12:23. He increaseth and destroyeth nations.  

·             Dan. 4:13-17. God watches over the nations. P.K. 536, 537.  

·             Eze. 29:17-20. God uses one nation to punish other nations.  

·             Jer. 25:9-11. God calls even heathen nations His servants to do His bidding.  

·             Jer. 50:11-20.  

·             Dan. 10:20. When the angels of the Lord left the court of Media and Persia, Grecia arose.  

·             Jer. 46:17. When God forsakes a kingdom, it is but a “noise”; it soon passes.  

·             Jer. 29:5-7. Seek the peace of the country where you live.  

·             Matt. 22:17-21. It is lawful to pay tribute. D.A. 601, 602.  

·             Matt. 17:24-27. Jesus performed a miracle to pay an unjust tax rather than offend. D.A. 432-435.

·             Gen. 39:7-9; 50:24, 25; 41:39-46. Joseph was true to God while filling a high position under the Egyptian government. P.P. 210-223.

·             Dan. 6:1-5. Daniel was prime minister of Media and Persia. P.K. 487, 488.

·             Dan. 6:16-23. He was always true to God while loyal to his government.

·             Dan. 6:28; 2:48. Daniel was a government official for over 70 years.  

·             Esther 4:1-17; 10:3. Mordecai was true to God and at the same time was judge (sat in the gate) under the Medo-Persian empire. P.K. 600-606.  

·             Titus 3:1. Be subject to the principalities and powers; also, be ready for every good work.

·             1 Peter 2:13-15. The Christians willing obedience to the government will “put to silence the ignorance of foolish men.”  

·             1 Peter 2:16, 17. The servants of God will honor the ruler of the nation.

·             Dan. 3:1-26. The three Hebrews would not disobey God, but they were faithful servants of the nation in every way where its laws did not conflict with God’s laws. Dan. 2:49; 3:12, 30; P.K. 508-513, 548.  

·             1 Tim. 2:1-3. Paul said it “was good and acceptable in the sight of God” to pray for rulers. Nero, who was a synonym for cruelty, was then ruling. If that was pleasing to God, how much more should we pray for the rulers of our own country who fear God.

Second Chapter of Daniel

·             Dan. 2:1-9. The story of the dream.  

·             Dan. 2:10-13. The failure of the wise men to interpret the dream. P.K. 491-493.  

·             Dan. 2:14-16. Daniel’s interview with the king. P.K. 493, 501.  

·             Dan. 2:17, 18. Prayer for the interpretation. P.K. 493, 494.

·             Dan. 2:19-23. Thanksgiving for answered prayer.  

·             Dan. 2:28. Prophecy of the latter days.

·             Dan. 2:31-35. The dream. P.K. 491-502.  

·             Dan. 2:37, 38. The head of gold, Babylon. P.K. 504, 505.

·             Isa. 14:4; Jer. 51:7. God represented Babylon.  

·             Dan. 2:39. Kingdom inferior to Babylon.

·             Dan. 5:25-28. Name of the kingdom.

·             Isa. 45:1-5; 44:26-28. Cyrus named more than 100 years before his birth. P.K. 551. {

·             Isa. 44:27; Jer. 50:38; 51:36. Bed of the river dry. P.K. 552, 553, 531.  

·             Jer. 51:46. In 539 B.C. the rumor; in 538 B.C., the overthrow.

·             Dan. 5:30, 31. Kingdom given Darius. Give a brief description of the taking of Babylon by Cyrus. P.K. chapter 43.

·             Isa. 13:19-22. Site of Babylon at the present day. P.K. 531-533.  

·             Dan. 2:39. Third universal kingdom.  

·             Dan. 8:20, 21. Grecia followed Medo-Persia.  

·             Dan. 2:40. Fourth universal kingdom.  

·             Luke 2:1; John 11:48. Rome a universal kingdom. The names of three kingdoms were given in the Old Testament; hence, Rome must be the fourth.  

·             Dan. 2:41, 42. Clay mingled with iron denotes division. Between the years 356 and 483, Rome was divided into ten parts. Some kingdoms strong, others weak.  

·             Dan. 2:43. Never another universal kingdom. }

·             Dan. 2:44. They remain in a divided state until the kingdom of God is set up.  

·             Dan. 2:45. The dream is certain.

·             2 Peter 1:5-11. A godly life will gain an abundant entrance into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ.  

The Gospel Preached in the Great Universal Kingdoms of the Earth

Each kingdom had a knowledge of the true God, proclaimed not only by faithful living but by individuals who loved the truth more than life.  

·             Dan. 1:1-20; 2:48, 49. Faithful living in Babylon.  

·             Dan. 3:16-26. Love God more than life. P.K. 508, 509.  

·             Dan. 3:2, 3, 27-29. World-wide proclamation of the truth. P.K. 510, 511.  

·             Dan. 5:1-4. Light rejected.  

·             Dan. 5:5-9, 24-28. God vindicated. P.K. 524-533.  

·             Dan. 10:20. Angel left Babylon.  

·             Dan. 6:1-5. Faithful living in Medo-Persia. P.K. 539, 542.  

·             Dan. 6:16-23. Loved God more than life. P.K. 543, 544, 556, 557.  

·             Dan. 6:25-27. World-wide proclamation of the truth.  

·             Esther 3:7-15. God rejected in Medo-Persia. P.K. 502.  

·             Esther 4:1-17. Esther loved God more than life.  

·             Esther 8:15-17. World-wide proclamation of the truth.  

We have little Bible history of the period of Grecian supremacy. Josephus tells us that Alexander the Great was shown the prophecies of Daniel relating to himself. Dan. 8:20; 10:20.  

·             Luke 2:1-7. Christ born during “Agustian Age” of Rome.  

·             John 19:30-55; Acts 7:59; 12:2; 2 Cor. 11:25-27; Phil. 3:8. Witnesses before Rome who loved God more than life. A.A. 597, 103, 509-511.

·             Rom. 1:7, 8; Col 1:6, 23. World-wide proclamation of the truth.  

·             Matt. 24:14. Message again to go to all the world.  

·             Eccl. 1:9. As in the past, the work will be done by those who love God more than life.  

Characteristics of the Five Great Universal Kingdoms

·             Dan. 2:35. Every kingdom represented in the end of time.  

·             Hab. 1:6, 11; Dan. 4:28-31. Leading sins of Babylon, -pride and exalting man rather than God. P.K. 501, 502.  

·             Rev. 17:1-4; 18:7-20. Same spirit in modern Babylon. G.C. 388, 384, 385.

·             Isa. 13:16-18. Medo-Persia cruel.

·             Esther 3:8-15. Decree to destroy all of God’s people. P.K. 600.

·             Esther 4:1-16. God saved His people. P.K. 601-604.

·             Rev. 13:15-17. Similar decree will be made. P.K. 605, 606; G.C. 635.

·             Rev. 15:1, 2. God will deliver His people. G.C. 636.

·             1 Cor. 1:22; 2 Cor. 10:5, margin; Acts 17:16-22; 2 Tim. 3:7. Exalting reason above God’s word, sin of ancient Greece. Same spirit is manifested in higher criticism at the present day. E. 227.

·             Dan. 7:25. All four nations persecuted the people of God more or less, but Rome only presumed to change the law of God.  

·             Rev. 13:14; Isa. 30:8-12, margin. Some spirit manifest in the closing history of the world. P.K. 187, 188.  

·             Dan. 2:35. God, -Pride, self-exaltation; silver, -cruelty, and over-bearing spirit; brass, -exalt man’s reason above the word of God; iron, – change God’s law to suit the mind of man. Any of these characteristics cherished in the heart means utter destruction, when God destroys all nations.  

·             Isa. 42:8. God demands full surrender. P.K. 189.  

Second Chapter of Daniel

In this line of prophecy, the character of the kingdoms is represented under the symbols of different beasts.  

·             Dan. 7:2. Striving winds and a turbulent sea.  

·             Dan. 11:40; Zech. 7:14. Winds denote war.

·             Rev. 17:15. Water denotes multitudes and nations.

·             Dan. 7:3. Beasts diverse one from another.  

·             Dan. 7:4. Babylon represented by a lion.  

·             Jer. 50:17. Same symbol used forty years before.

·             Hab. 1:6-8. Wings denote rapid conquest.  

·             Jer. 17:9. Man’s heart denotes wickedness, -nation ready for destruction.  

·             Isa. 13:17, 18. More than 100 years before, Isaiah said Medes were cruel.

·             Dan. 7:5. When Daniel saw the bear arise, devouring flesh, he recognized it as the nation of which Isaiah had written.  

·             Dan. 7:6. Leopard, -symbol of Greece. Hab. 1:6-8 gives wings as a signal of rapid conquest. Jeremiah used a leopard to represent evil. Jer. 13:23. The spots would seem to indicate a mixture of good and evil.

·             Dan. 7:7. The fourth a great and terrible beast.  

·             Dan. 7:15, 16. Asks for the meaning.  

·             Dan. 7:17, 18. Four kingdoms followed by God’s kingdom.  

·             Dan. 9:2, 3. Daniel was a student of the prophecies and understood the first three symbols.

·             Dan. 7:19-23. He asks about the fourth.

·             Dan. 7:23. Fourth beast, fourth kingdom.

·             Luke 2:1. Rome, the fourth kingdom.  

·             Dan. 7:24. Ten divisions; divided between 356 and 483 A.D.  

·             Dan. 7:24. A different power arises after the division and subdues three kings. The papacy arose in 538; Heruli, Ostrogoths, and Vandals overthrown to make way for it.  

·             Dan. 7:25. Character of the power and length of supremacy. G.C. 439.  

·             Dan. 11:13, margin; Rev. 13:5; 12:6; Num. 14:34. Explain the period of 1260 years. G.C. 54, 55.

Seven Trumpets

Christ lived and died, and the Christian religion was proclaimed to the world all within the confines of the Roman Empire; therefore it is only reasonable to expect that the downfall of Rome, which was so closely connected with the history of Christ’s church, should be a subject of prophecy.

The first four trumpets deal with the breaking up of western Rome; the last three, with the overthrow of eastern Rome.  

·             Num. 10:9. Trumpet ancient summons to war.  

·             Rev. 8:2. Seven angels given charge of this prophecy.  

·             Rev. 8:6, 7. Hordes of barbarians of N. Asia on account of trouble with China turned westward and poured into the Roman territory.  

The Goths, under Alaric and two other organized bodies of barbarians, led the raids. A.D. 410, Alaric sacked Rome. About 407 A.D., seven barbarian nations had taken their places as follows: Franks, northern France; Vandals, Spain, later N. Africa; Visigoths, S. France and Spain; Burgundians, Switzerland and part of France and Germany; Suevi, Portugal and N.W. Spain; Ostrogoths, Italy; Huns, S.W. Russia. Gibbon’s Rome, chapters 30, 31.  

·             Rev. 8:8. From 429 to 468 A.D., Genseric, leading the Vandals of N. Africa, made repeated attacks on the Roman Empire, destroying large fleets of vessels. So terrible was this warfare, that “Vandalism” is still a synonym for ruthless destruction. Gibbon’s Rome, chapters 33, 37.  

·             Rev. 8:10, 11. The Huns, led by Attila, made fierce attacks in the regions of the Alps; Chalons was greatest battle. Attila’s raids from 451 to 453 A.D., were finished 15 years before Genseric ceased to harass Rome from the South.  

After Attila’s war, the Heruli settled in Italy, the Lombards in the N. of Italy, and the last of the ten divisions, the Anglo-Saxons, in England, about 471 A.D. Gibbon’s Rome, chapter 35.

·             Rev. 8:12. Sun, moon, and stars rule the day and night. Emperors, consuls, and senators ruled Rome. In 476 A.D., title of emperor ceased; 541 A.D., consulship ended; 552 A.D., under Narses, the senate was set aside. Gibbon’s Rome, chapters 36, 40, 43.

·             Rev. 8:13. Last three trumpets are woe trumpets.

·             Rev. 9:1-11. Rise of the Mohammedan religion. For about 600 years the Arabs were like locusts without a king. Near the close of the 13th century, Othman founded a government; and July 27, 1299, he entered Nicomedia, -the first attack of the Ottoman government on eastern Rome. Gibbon’s Rome. They were to hurt men five months, -150 years. July 27, 1299, plus 150 years, equals July 27, 1449.

·             Rev. 9:12-21. The four sultanies of Aleppo, Iconium, Damascus, and Badgered, were the central strength of the Ottoman Empire. In 1449, John Palaeologus, the Greek emperor, died; his brother, Deacozes, would not take the throne without the consent of Amurath, the Turkish sultan. Thus the power of the Turkish Empire was loosed. It was loosed for a day, a month, and a year, or for 391 years, 15 days; they were to have full power. July 27, 1449, plus 391 years, 15 days, equals Aug. 11, 1840. G.C. 334.

·             Rev. 9:13-21. To save Turkey from being overthrown by Egypt, Turkey accepted the intervention of England, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. An ultimatum was drawn up by the great powers which pledged themselves to coerce. Egypt, if Egypt refused to accept the terms. As long as the sultan held the ultimatum, he still maintained his independence; but as soon as the document was in the hands of Mehemet Ali, it was beyond the sultan’s power to control the situation. The document was put into the power of Mehemet Ali, and deposed of according to his orders, Aug. 11, 1840. Since then Turkey has been “the sick man of the East.” G.C. 334, 335.  

·             Rev. 11:14. The 3 rd woe did not immediately follow the 2nd, but came quickly.

·             Rev. 10:7; 11:15. The finishing of the work, or the third angel’s message, which would be finished under the 7th trumpet, began in 1844 A.D.  

Note. For a full explanation of the woe trumpets, see “Prophetic Exposition,” published 1842, by Josiah Litch; also “An Exposition of the Seven Trumpets,” Review and Herald, 1875.